The English Language  

How did the English language develop form the Anglo Saxons into a lingua franca?  Lingua franca is also known as trade language or common language (Third language that two people use,  when neither both of them speak the native language). The reason for why lingua franca is called trade  language is because they used this language to make communication possible between people who don’t  share the same native language. 

English is a mix of Englesk, Latin and Celtic. English is growing  

42 CE Roman Invasion  

425 – The Roman Empire Collapsed  

Before the arrival of Anglo-Saxons, Britain was ruled by the roman and spoke a Celtic language. Anglo Saxons were three Germanic tribes in the mid 5th and 6th centuries, they were Angles, Saxons and Jutes  from Denmark and northern Germany. They crossed the North Sea and migrated to England. Indigenous  British groups adopted some of the Anglo-Saxons culture and language.  

Some years later the three Germanic tribes mixed their languages with Latin and Celtic, and resulted in Old  English. (One famous text from the old English language is Beowulf).  

In the year 790 the Vikings invaded Britain and brought new words into the language For instance today there is some English words with Norwegian roots: egg, leg, skull, take and lift  (Norse(norrøn) words). Old English was written in Runic alphabet, from the Scandinavian languages (Anglo Saxons came from Denmark etc.). They shared their alphabet and influenced the English language  

Later in the year 900 the Christian missionaries replaced the Runic alphabet with the Latin alphabet  

Old English ends (450 – 1100 CE) 

Middel English (1100 – 1500 CE) 

In 1066 The Battle of Hasting – William the conqueror, conquerors England.  

French became the official language and added more worlds. Since French became the language of the  royal court, many English words that describe law and government came from French, such as jury,  parliament and justice. Luxury + Deliacy + consumption words are from French. As the time passed, the  ruling Norman no longer spoke French, but a mix of French and old English. French “gentile” and Germanic  “mann”, formed gentleman. The mix of the French English and Germanic English formed Middle English.  French affected spelling so that the “cw” sound came to be written as “qu”.  

15th century 

English returns to the royal court  

• Johannes Gutenberg improved the printing press and made it possible to spread the literature and  books became cheaper.  

• Printing press, a machine for printing, came to the public and the beginning of the information  revolution. 

1. More and more people could read and learn the language and read. Literacy roles improved 2. More books  

3. Standardization of the language  

The Great Vowel Shift  

Starting at the end of the 15th century the pronunciation starting to change, and it was creating a passage  from Middle England to Early Modern English. The letter “e” at the end of words became silent such as life.  In the Middle English “five” was “feef” and “down” was “doon” 

Middle English ends (1100 – 1500)  

Early modern English begins (1500-1800)  

In the 16th century, was the years of Renaissance (Rennesans) because of the pope Latin and Greek influenced the English langue. This was the beginning of the Early Modern English. 16th  century Renaissance – classical philosophy and science that were kept locked, could now bring more  diversity to the language 

Shakespeare influenced the English language, with new words. It was few word to describe feelings, so he  made some word to describe it.  

________________________________________________________________(BRUDD) English got status  

From Early Modern to Late Modern English 

The difference between Early Modern and Late Modern is the vocabulary. Grammar, spelling and  pronunciation were largely the same. Late Modern English had more words. These words are the result of  two historical factors 1) the industrial revolution, 2) the British Empire.  

Late Modern English – TO PRESENT  

17th century – early 20th century 

During the British Empire the English did not only spread to other counties, but other words in different  language was introduced to English and expands the vocabulary. Things that they never have seen before,  they had to make a name to it.  

18th and 19th century  

In the industrial (indØstrial) revolution, there were different words that have not been used before or  existed, but during the industrial revolution, it was necessitated.  

→ Oxygen, protein and nuclear. 

The military influenced on the language with different words, during the two wars in 20th centuries. → Radar and camouflage. 

1947 England dismantles (oppløsning av) the Empire, and the colonies became independent and kept the  language. Even though England lost their global superpower, the US inherited the British power system,  and Insia. They spoke the same language.  

English became the Lingua Franca  

1950 to today: 

How did the English maintain the language from 1950 to today? It was because of the…..  • Tourism  

• Media 

o Conventional media = TV, radio, newspaper 

o New media = internet 

o Social media = Facebook etc.  

• Trade  

• Science  

o Universities and school began to teach in English. Since English became the biggest Lingua  Franca  

• US became more dominant with the same language  

The pop culture (popular culture) = the culture that people liked to listen to and see. All of this was in  English or came from the England and United States.  

• Globalized word. As the words became smaller and smaller, it is more important to communicate to  each other. That is why English is a lingua franca  

The structure of the British government  

Constitutional monarchy → limits the authority to each political branch.  

Head of state: Queen Elizabeth II  

Head of government: Therese May, former Prime Minister is David Cameron (he resigned)  

3 branches:  

Legislative – Parliament (same as norway) (US Congress)  

Executive – The office of the Prime Minister (The office of the President in US) 

Judicial – Supreme Court of the UK (Same in UK and US)  

Legislative branch  


The term «Parliament» came from Latin and French in 13 century. The great Council and the Baron’s  Committee evolved into the Parliament of England. The Parliament is a legislative government. A  parliament has three functions in modern politics:  

1) representing the electorate  

2) making laws  

3) overseeing the government (budget, taxes, scrutiny) 

Parliament is made up of three central elements: 

1. House of Commons (Lower chamber)  

2. House of Lords (Upper chamber) 

Generally the decisions made in one House have to be approved by the other.  

Parliament Two Chambers:  

House of Lords (Upper chamber) not elected  

• Lord Spiritual = are the heads of the Church of England (Protestant)  

• Lords Temporal = a) Hereditary (Inherited. The first child of the Lord who just died. )  b) Life Peers (non-hereditary)  

They are selected by the monarch from a list provided by the Prime Minister. Soon  as one of them dies, and gives the list to Queen, and she decide who can be the Life  Peers. This is not so democratic! 

House of Commons (Lower chamber) = democratically elected house  

MP = Member of Parliament. There is 650 MPs in the House of Commons.  

How to become a Member of Parliament: Each MP represents one constituency. (There are 650  constituencies in UK). Go to the constituency where you live and need votes to represent.  Constituency = valgkrets  

Since 1911 Most of the political power rested in the House of Lord. Nationwide strike in the industrial  revolution with match strike was the start of the strike actions. The whole country went to strike, to  demand democratic power, national health care, unemployment insurance and more. The nation stood  still, so the power flipped to the House of Commons.  

The only power the House of Lord, was to delay if the House of Commons wanted to change the law. But  they can’t delay anything with money.  

Who becomes the Prime Minister?  

The leader of the party that has a majority of seats in parliament.  

In UK you have to show that you have the control over the parliament.  

How many seats does a party need? 50% of the seats + 1 more seat = 326 seats.  

The difference between Norway and UK, is that UK has to show that they has control over the Parliament.  Per definition they can do whatever they want, because they show that they control the Parliament. In  Norway the Parliament need the support from other non-government parties = Venstre and KRF. And in  Norway they need to ask and get approved by the monarch.  

The office of the Prime Minister – Executive 

The main power they have is executive the law or enforce the law. Only Parliament can make the law.  The office is located in Nr 10 Downing St.  

The office consist of Prime Minister + Ministries (Departementer). All of the Ministries are run by Ministers,  and all of the ministries have a head ministers that answer to The Prime Minister.  The Prime Ministers job is to run the day-to-day business of government though the Ministries. 

The Supreme Court – Judicial 

Until 2007 The Supreme Court was part of the Parliament. Since 2007 it is separate, because the House of  Lord had the judicial power.  

Supreme Court is highest court of appeal. There is no higher court that one can appeal to.  Supreme Court is limited by the doctrine of Parliamentary sovereignty (independent), which means that  only Parliament can create or amend laws. No parliament can create a law that cannot be changed or  amended by a future parliament.  

What is Magna Carta and why is it relevant today?  

Magna Cart, also called the Great Charter of Freedom is an English legal charter or a document, originally  issued in the year 1215. Magna Carta required King John forced to sign to proclaim certain legal rights. It  promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, limitation  

on feudal payments to the Crown and access to swift justice. Magna Carta is the first document to limit the  power of the monarch. Magna Cart was the stating point of the Parliament.  

Two ways:  

1. Barons Committee (komitti) 

A group of barons had to approve the king’s proclamations. They can veto king  

2. Habeas Corpus  

Is the right to defend yourself in front of an independent judge against illegitimate imprisonment.  Prior to the Habeas Corpus, the king could just throw anybody in the jail. Now the King was to obey  law, so he needs to bring the inmates to a judge and have evidence.  

The judge will wave the evidence 

The reason for why the Magna Carta is important today it is considered as one of the first steps taken in  England towards establishing parliamentary democracy. Even though the Magna Carta was made in 1215,  it was still used in the later periods in the history, to restrain the power of monarchs. For instance in the  American Bill Of Rights written in 1791, was strongly influenced by the Magna Carta. The Universal  Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 after the Second World War had the basic principles of the Magna  Carta. Or more recently was a case about the prison at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. President Barack Obama  wanted to close this prison, because they are rejection the inmate’s habeas corpus. Many people without  trial and this is against the Magna Carta and in US the 7th amendment.  

What makes Magna Carta even more relevant today is because of the first steps the parliament. The  reason is that king John has limited power and could for instance not collect taxes without the councils  acceptance.  

The Magna Carta includes the human rights and democracy, and also trial by jury and stands for free  speech. All of this is relevant today for our society with constitution. 


The UK is governed within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, in which the Monarch is the head  of the state and the Prime Minister (Therese May, political party: The conservative party) is head of the  government. The monarch, Queen Elisabeth II has very little power. Her power is almost just symbolic, just  like the rest of the Monarchies in the Europe.  

What is the electoral system and why is it controversial (omstridt)?  

Monarchy and The House of Lords are not democratic, because the Queen is born to be the Monarch,  while the Queen chooses the Lords. First Past the Post is undemocratic, because the smaller parties can’t  have any representatives in the Parliament. Which simply means that their votes are wasted.  Electoral process: First Past the Post also called Winner takes all  

The winner has to have a plurality of votes, not a majority of votes. Which means that one party just need  one more vote than the  

Man trenger ikke mer enn 50 av stemmene for å vinne, men han trenger en mer enn den høyeste  personen  

650 local elections. In each election, upwards of 10 candidates can run. The person just need one more  vote than the next highest vote. This is controversial because the loosing candidate will not get her or his  voice heard at all.  

Every five year there is Parliament election.  

In Norway the Legislative (Stortinget), while in the UK it is the Executive Branch, and in UK all of the  branches are equal. (Every branch and check and stop the other Branch ) 

The US government is a system of checks and balances with three separate but equal branches.  Each branch checks and keeps balance over the other branches.  

– Check the their work, and that’s why each have equal power over each other  1. Legislative Branch (Stortinget)  

Legislative branch is the first branch, because they are making the law in order to structure the  system.  

In The Congress there are two Houses:  

• Senate (upper chamber)  

• Represents state. Two from each state – 100 senators. They sit for six years.  

• When the president nominate member to the Cabinet, the senate have to approve them first.  The same goes to the Supreme Court when the president nominates a judge for the SP.  • House of Representatives (lower chamber)  

• They represent the people, based on population 435, they can only sit for 2 years. 240  republicans and 195 democrats. Number of representatives depends on the population of the  State.  

The Congress can stop and check with the Executive branch  

• Makes laws and control and decide the level of taxation and how the money is to be spent  • Declare war 

• Ratify (to approve) or reject treaties (traktat) from the President  

• Override a presidential VETO with 2/3 of the votes from the legislative branch  • Defund projects  

• Impeach = remove the president and put him to trial. The trial is held in the Senate.  • Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton (both found innocent)  

• Richard Nixon knew he would be impeached and removed from office, so he resign  

2. The Executive Branch  

• The office of the President. Enforce the laws passed by the Congress  

Consist of: President + Vice president + The Cabinet  

 The Cabinet serves as advisors for the Presidents, and is nominated by the president, but have to be  approved by the Senate.  

The power of the President over the Congress (sit for 4 years, 2 term limit): 

• Negotiate treaties  

• Executive power  

• Enforce the laws passed by the Congress  

• VETO a law  

• Executive power decides how to enforce the law  

• Send out immigrant that has illegal or don’t have resident permit  

• Trump wants to send out all the Hispanic people  

• Nominate for federal position to the Supreme Court and The Cabinet  

• Power of the Pardon (Benåding i Norge – grunnloven §2)  

• President can release inmates with pardon or free card 

• The second title that the President has is Commander in Chief  

• Conducts the war and make the strategy 

3. The judicial Branch  

The supreme court of the US. Right now there are 9 supreme court justices: one associate and one  chief.  

The one is Chief justices, who speak for the court, but not necessary have extra power. He has one  vote just like the other justices  

The Supreme Court can not be fired and have a term for life. The reason for why is because of the  political pressure (In UK you have a age limit that makes one justice of SC to go off)  • In order to be in the Supreme Court, the executive (president) have to nominate one judge and  the Congress have to approve or refuse the decision.  

The power: 

• To interpret the law  

• The Supreme Court can vacate any law determined to be unconstitutional. They decide when a law is  not constitutional 

• Declare presidents actions to be unconstitutional. Check over the president  

The Bill of Rights 1791  

• The first 10 amendments to the constitution. The rights are something everyone is born with.  • Guarantee certain Rights of citizens and states in relation to the federal Government. Make sure that  the government will not abuse the constitution. The men who wrote the  

• The first amendment 

• 5 basic freedoms to; religion, speech, press, peaceably assemble and to petition  • The second amendment  

• The right to keep and bear Arms  

• The tenth amendment  

• The states Rights amendment -> Each state has certain law and every state has the right to  make their own state law 

• Because of the tenth amendment that the state law was guarantee by the constitution, and  that’s why Jim Crow Law existed in some states. Because there were no federal law that  protected the blacks. As long as they don’t go against the federal law.  

• Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act was a result of Civil Rights Movement (Mathin Luther king  jr. ended the segregation and apartheid) 

American and English Societies in the 20th and 21st centuries  

What is colonialism and how did it end? How has it shaped today’s world?  

The colonies and territories of the British Empire were ruled by the United Kingdom. This was between late  16th century and early 18th century. The phrase “The Empire on which the sun never sets” was often used  to describe the British Empire, which means anything time on a day or night, the sun will always shine on  one of the colony. England saw that they were bringing civilization to those colonies, and they didn´t see  that they were stealing. Everything that England did is by definition legal.  

England used two different colonial systems: 

1. Settlement rule 

Was used in the America. The first citizens of these colonies travelled there from England and always  considered themselves subject of The King 

2. Imperial rule 

• Was used in India. Queen was the Empress of India but Indians themselves administered the colony  for England. English gunboats were always quickly and violently crush any form of resistance. Install  leaders in the country who is loyal to England  

Australia – The Penal Colony  

In 1770 James Cook discovered the eastern coast of Australia While on a scientific voyage to the Pacific  Ocean. He claimed the continent for Britain and named it South Wales. It is called the penal colony,  because convicts were transported to Australia, since the prison became full.  

Aboriginal Australians – consequences  

– European epidemic diseases were a disaster for the aboriginal Australians, who were the indigenous  people of Australia. Diseases such as: influenza and chickenpox  

– The second consequence was of British settlement was appropriation of land and water resources. The  settlers took the view that indigenous Australians were nomads and would be just as happy  somewhere else. The loss of traditional lands and food sources was fatal and especially for those  already weakened by disease  

– Bought alcohol, opium and tobacco, and substance abuse has remained a chronic problem for  Indigenous communities ever since.  

– 1830 a military operation known as “The Black Line” engaged 2000 men to sweep across Tasmania  from north to south. The aim was to herd (gjete) all Aboriginal people into two small peninsulas  (halvøy). Consequence of this was that there were no Tasmanian Aborigines left.  

– 1909 – 1969: The Stolen Generation were the children of Australian Aboriginal descent who were  removed from their families by the Australian Federal.  

– In 2008 PM Kevin Rudd made a formal apology to the Aboriginal people. Yet today Australia still  wrecks Aboriginal families .

India – The jewel in the crown  

– British people set up The East India Company in 1600 as a monopoly company, were they could trade  with India, Indonesia and China.  

– It called the jewel in the crown because the population of India could already contribute a great deal  to the wealth of the empire.  

– They could tax the Indians and had all sorts of goods that they wanted: cotton, spices and textiles.  – Cotton and their colours – India had many fabrics and made a lot of cotton with many colours. In 1750  English had ruined the Indian fabric and transferred it to England.  

– Cotton grown cheaply by slaves in America and were made into fabrics in England, and then were  selling in India, what the Indians had taught them to make… 

– 1858 India became a British colony  

– 1947 India gained independence from British rule. This was led by Mahatma Gandhi with his strategy  of non-violent civil disobedience.  

– Today many Indians can speak English and they have also a parliamentary system of government  • The colonization ended after the Second World War. That started the process of the decolonization.  The reason why it ended was because they could not longer afford the cost of running colonies. It  cost a lot to maintain an army to conquer another group of people. Those were paid with the income  taxes.  

• The Common Wealth of Nation is an organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of  the former British Empire. All members have an equal say – regardless of size or economic stature.  

The colonization shaped today with… (multiculturalism)  

o The language – Number one lingua franca (not the biggest, but most expanded and most used as  a lingua franca) 

o Internal conflicts now released. They set up borders that did not make up with the reality on the  ground, and when the colonization is over, the borders are still there. Two group have to be a  country when they are two different nation  

• They could not decide who can control, maybe the majority wants the control, but a  minority group has weapons and wants to control them with force and violence.  

• African countries, middle eastern conflicts  

o Multi-cultural words into the England language.  

o Multicultural Britain 

• Definition: several cultural or ethnic groups within a society as a nation or state.  • Ethnically diverse country with many different communities. And has a cultural variety.  • Many immigrant came to work, settle in hope of a better life. (Left EU because migrants take  over Britain’s workplace)  

• Many immigrants in 1960s and 1970s. Indians and Pakistani people settled, Asian Ugandan  refugees and Somalis  

• Notting Hill Carnival celebrates the Jamaican culture  

• Conflicts:  

• After 9/11 multicultural diversity was seen as a threat to Western values and civilization • Clash of civilizations and culture  

• Subcultures 

• Exchange different cultural values with each other: food, clothing, manners, school and  entertainment  

• Largest groups are Pakistanis and Indians  

• Some years ago David Cameron had a speech about multiculturalism that the  multiculturalism had failed and it led to segregation rather than integration.  

• Different core values  

What is the black experience in the US? (Social condition)  

17th century – slavery where forced on African people to be slaves in the US  

1776 – The US independent declaration – Thomas Jefferson (third president) wrote that every man is  equal. But in the 18th century, the definition of man is not the same as today. It you were white, had amount of capital and had a land that you own, then you were categorized as a man. The three fifths  compromise: 3/5 If you own 5 male slaves, you get 3 votes 

1861-1865 – The civil War – 13th amendment added to the constitution  

o The south felt the pressure from North, and that resulted the War  

1875 – 1965 – Segregation with the Jim Crow laws (state + local laws) 

– KKK Ku Klux Klan organization  

o The 10th amendment made the Jim Crow laws possible in some states and locals. The law  enforced segregation and blacks and whites are 2nd and 3rd class citizen. Made it possible to  keep the slaves and continue the segregation, but you just could not call them slaves anymore,  but in the reality they were.  

1954-1965 – The civil rights movement 

o They were fighting for civil rights (you’re right as a citizen).  

• The movement was success because in  

1964 we got the civil right Act 

1965 The Voting Right Act 

They were a part of the federal law, and the state law could not have laws that are against  the federal law, so these two federal laws made the Jim Crow law illegal.  

1965-1980 When the Crow Laws was gone, the black people organized day care, child care,  education centers etc. 

«The black panthers» -> Self help  

o The white people were afraid of that, so they used COINTELPRO. And that was a FBI program,  that did: 

– sabotage, assassination of the leader of the black panthers, false imprisonment, illegal  surveillance and black mailing  

1980 until today

o Contra war (Contra army created by the CIA)  

• Cocaine  

• Dark alliance CIA (Gary Webb gave them the title)  

• Crack cocaine epidemic in the black community. There were private prisons, so the  government paid for the private jails. They saw it as a win-win situation were they could  get rid of blacks and could make a profit of it  

• Today there are more black prisoners than slaves in the 1850s.  

2008 Barack Obama was elected as the first president of the US 

o Black lives Matter, which is more like the Black Panthers, the only difference is that they don’t  are as organized as the Panthers  

• Killing of young black men, and people got more aware when also Police did it  

What has been the experience of First Nation peoples (Aborigines, Native Americans, Maoi)? Choose one of them and read the literature and the history and experiences  

• The Native Americans lived in the United States long before the arrival of the Europeans. They are  the indigenous people of the Americans. The meeting with the Europeans was a disaster.  • The Native Americans did not write their history, so it was a oral tradition.  

Christopher Columbus  

• When Christopher Columbus arrived in the US in 1492, he thought it was India, but it was actually  Bahamas, America. That’s why he called the natives, «Indians».  

• There were many hundreds of different tribes throughout the United Stated when Columbus first  arrived  

• In eight years, Columbus men murdered more than 100,000 Native Americans on Haiti alone.  Between 1494 and 1508 over 3 million Native Americans died of diseases, died as slaves in mines or  directly killed  

The Indian Removal Act of 1830  

• When the Europeans began to settle down and establish states, a new law was made:  • The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was passed in order to move Indian people away from the  approaching white civilization. During this period, various treaties began establishing reservations.  

Trail of Tears – 1838  

• The Trail of Tears is a name given to the forced relocation and movement of Native American nations  from their homelands to «Indian Territory», west of the Mississippi river, which was 1,200 miles away.  Among them was the Cherokee tribe. The walk took several months and historians estimate that  5,000 of 15,000 Cherokee died as a result of the journey.  

• Died of hunger and diseases  

The Homestead Act of 1862 

• Gave free land to all Americans. Europeans wanted to build railways and reach for gold, whereas the  Native used it as hunting grounds and believed that no one could «own» the land. It was the people  that are belonged to the nature.  

• The whited killed the buffaloes so that the Native could not hunt it anymore. The buffaloes were  their livelihood and were very important for them. 

General Allotment Act – 1887 – 1928  

• The United States passed the General Allotment Act. The main goal was to allotting tribal lands were to Americanize native people into mainstream society, by assimilation.  

• Allotment did not work because it was not something Indians were used to. They did not view the  land as something to own. Instead they viewed it as their homes. 

The Battle of Wounded knee 1890  

• Conflict between the representatives of the US Government and The Sioux (Su). It was a massacre that  left 150 Native Americans dead, and that was the last battle between them. The incident took place in  Indian reservation in South Dakota.  

Reorganization and Self-Government 1928 – 1945  

• The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 was passed to end the allotment policy and to enable tribes to  organize for their common welfare and to adopt Federally approved constitutions and bylaws.  • The constitutions were new and strange to most tribes and comprised a restructuring of their  traditional ways  

The US Government no longer recognize sovereignty of tribes 1945 – 1961  

• Native Americans were to become subject to state and federal taxes as well as laws, from which they  had previously been exempt  

Self-Determination – 1961 – present  

• The Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 essentially imposed the basic requirements of the Bill of Rights  that were previously not applicable to American Indians.  

• The American Indian Movement (AIM) is a Native American advocacy group in the United States,  founded in July 1968. AIM was formed to address American Indian sovereignty, treaty issues and  leadership. It also focused in incidents of police harassment and racism against Native Americans 

Present – the status quo  

• They speak more than hundred languages 

• The majority live in or near poverty  

• Generally the Indians are proud of their traditions and heritage and many of them resist giving them  up or allowing them to be corrupted by the white civilization  

• Dakota Pipeline. The government wants to build pipeline over Dakota, which can cause pollution of  the water and that will affect the Native Americans who lives there. The water is their drinking water.  Been big demonstrations where many people supported.  

U.S Tribal Sovereignty  

• There are about 300 federal reservations in the United States today and the reservations are  sovereign nations, but the People are also considered US citizen. The US federal government  recognizes tribal nations as «domestic dependent nations» and was established several laws to clarify  the relationship between federal, state and tribal governments. 

• Tribal Sovereignty means that indigenous tribes are allowed to govern themselves within the boarder  of US. So they are not truly sovereign and independent nation because  

• Negatives: After centuries with assimilation and relocating, many Native Americans don’t have rights  to the natural resources in their original homelands that they need.  

• Positives: Allowing tribes to live as sovereignty as possible, so it allows them to manage and control  their own destinies, without the States being involved. They can govern themselves. 

Harold and Maude  

What categorize a dramatic story? 

Characters motivated to actions which are connected by a single theme/premise with a beginning that  leads to conflict which lead to a resolution  

• Beginning, conflict, resolution, characterization,  


o What they say  

o What they do/ their actions  

o What hey wear/ their appearance  

o Are they static characters or do they develop?  

o Protagonist (the person the you can identify, that he wants to be accepted and loved) and  antagonist + catalyst (third person)  

• Protagonist = Harold 

▪ We identify with Harold, because everyone need affection, love and caring  

• Antagonist = Mother  

• Catalyst = Maude  

• Maude show him to live life with happiness  

• Motivated actions (that’s how we know when a character is in conflict)  

• Theme – meaning of life  


• We have to establish the characters and their relationship to each other  

• Establish a STATUS QUO  

• As a audience you have to establish a status quo, for the way things are  


• Opposites meet. Harold is obsessed with death, and Maude is obsessed with life and she does also  like to visit funerals. She teach him to many wonderful things in life and learn to appreciate it.  


• When a conflict comes up, then we had to make a new balance and differ from the beginning. Which  means that the audience will get introduced to a new STATUS QUO, whether it is higher or lower  than the balance at the beginning  

• After Maude dies, we see that his cars is falling of a cliff, that makes us think that his really are taking  his life this time, but that we see is that he’s playing on the banjo that Maude gave him  o He lost his love, but his still be happy, because Maude teaches him to accept himself

Of Mice and Men  

John Ernst Steinbeck came from a wealthy family, but was interested in the lives of the farm laborers and  spent time working with them. The wanted to see how the farm worked after the great depression in  America. 

• Was about the dreams of two migrant agricultural laborers in California.  

• During the worst years of the depression, more than one third of America’s populations were unemployed.  

Migrant farmer 

• The government pumps up all the groundwater, and the soil will dry up. They could not grow  anything from the farms  

• Farmers in California told the desperate farmers that there was work, because they could get cheap  work. When there was many workers in the farm, the framers chose the cheapest workers and they  got treated as slaves.  


George Milton 

Small and quick-witted man who travels with and take cares of Lennie  

Lennie Small 

Large and childlike migrant worker. Mental disability  

Relationship between Gorge and Lennie  

George and Lennie complete each other. George is very smart, and Lennie is very strong, so they complete  each other.  


The boss of the farm. He provokes a lot of fights with other men. He’s small but fights with big guys in  order to show how big he is, which means that he has Napoleon complex.  

His hand with Vaseline with of soft  

Foreshadowing = frampek  

Curley’s wife  

She wanted to be an actress and be famous, but she didn’t even get a name. Another important point is  that she doesn’t have a prober work, and more like a housewife. Also that she’s owned by Curley.  


Candy didn’t shoot the dog, and regrets it because he wanted to show the love for the dog and respect for  the also. Aldo not let the dog get shot by a stranger.  


He’s called crooks, because he has a crocked back. He is an smart and black guy who reads a lot. He’s  sleeping in the barn and not in the ranch, because he was back and because of the Jim Crows Law. 


The impossibility of the American Dream 

The European had the American Dream, because they emigrated to America to achieve their dream. The  ideal is that you can been born from the poorest family and the least educated family, but still achieve and  be coming the richest and the most educated person. In Europe is had a lot to say there your family comes  from, but in America their family, doesn’t say anything.  

Curley = He wanted to become a boxer  

Lennie and George = buy a farm and be their own bosses  

Curley’s wife = wanted to be a famous actress  

Loneliness and companionship.  

Every character admits to being lonely.  

Crooks is sleeping in the barn with animals, and no one comes to visit him. Lennie comes visit Crooks, but  he didn’t treat Lennie good, because he treats how he got treated by the other. The reason is that Lennie is  weaker and Crooks get the chance to treat him poorly 

Curley and his wife is also loney, because their are married. Curley and his wife met in the dance hall, and  in order to get in he has to but a ticket, just to be able to dance with a women. This shows that he’s kind of  lonely. At the same time his wife had two choices 1. continue as a dancing girl or 2. mary with financial  security. That cost her American dream with is becoming a famous actress.  

They have a communication, but is poor. Because she flirts with other men, and he beats them up Curley’s wife is like a trophy wife, is order to increase his status.  


Definition: object or colors used to represent abstract ideas. 

George and Lennie’s farm that doesn’t exists = This is the most powerful symbosl in the novel. They keep  talking about the farm that doesn’t exist. That one day they weill grow their own food and tend their own  livestock. The farm represents the possibility of freedom, hope protection from the cruelties of the world.  They want to be masters of their own lives.  

Lennie’s Puppy = The puppy represent victory of the strong over the weak. Lennie kills the puppy  accidentally, since he’s strong and he likes to squeeze hard on soft animals etc. He doesn’t recognize his  own strength. The puppy is somehow reflects Lennie, and the puppy’s fate is similar to his fate. Just like  the puppy he is innocent, and unaware of the vicious, predatory powers that surround him.  

Candy’s Dog = It symbolize that in this society when you get old, you’re not longer useful. They will just get  shot and have nothing to do anymore. Steinbeck is also using the dog as foreshadowing. It foreshowing  that Lennie is going to way, and also that since Candy regret not killing the dog by him self in order to show  love and respect, Georg in the end of the book shoots Lennie with the same gun. The mercy killing will save  Lennie with suffering by Curley and Curley’s men. 

How the diagnose system can make people more sick – individual project  

My individual project is about the diagnose system in Norway and why the system can  make people more mentally “ill”.  

First I want to explain what a diagnose system is and what it does. In Norway we use to  different diagnostic manuals. The first one is International Classification of Diseases  10th revision, shortened to ICD-10. Elaborated by the World Health Organization  (WHO) in 1992. Norwegian health worker are required to follow this manual.  And the other manual is called Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorder,  shortened to DSM. Elaborated by the American Psychiatric Association.  Both of the manuals are constantly under revision. The difference between ICD-9 and  ICD-10 is that, the last revision is more likely to follow the same principle as the  American DSM. Psychiatrist Ulrik Malt says that since IDC is influenced by DMS, so then  DMS is changing, ICD will also change. He also claims that IDC and DMS will be merged.  Now, this is a problem because who were mentally healthy before, will get diagnosed.  The person, who once was an emotional human being, is now bipolar, and the person  who once was an active human being, is now diagnosed with ADHD.  

The main problem is that the diagnostic manuals are constantly changing. The reason it  changes is because they for instance change the criteria for an illness, and when the  person should get medicated. And to clarify my point, I want to show some statistic of  how many people got diagnosed after the DSM and ICD manuals got changed. For  instance there was 15% increase of ADHD, when DSM-4 was revised to DSM-5. It is not  always the case that children and teens have ADHD, the reason can me many. For  instance just being unruly or very energetic person, that doesn’t mean that some  children and teens have ADHD. According to the criteria of ADHD in ICD-10, the  occurrence was 1-3% of children and teens with ADHD, and according to DMS, the  frequency was 4-8%. This illustrates that ICD will more likely to get more people who  actually don’t need a diagnosis, get diagnosed, because ICD are influenced by the  American system. This can lead to incorrectly medicated or over diagnosed(?). The  consequence of this is that every individual react differently from medication, and the  side effects can make some people even worse than the beginning. There are several  incidents that I have no time to talk about right now. One of many solutions to  medication is behavior-, group- or talk therapy.  

Like I said, because of the manuals are changing, the criteria for mental disorders, are  also changing. The fact that the diagnose system ICD-10 are categorizing mental  symptoms as mental illness, will lead to social issues. For instance if someone with a  little bit different behavior be stigmatized, because it is a symptom as a disorder. In 

2010 Norway removed fetishism and transgender people as a mental disorder from  ICD-10. The reason is because they can still be a part of the society and work, go to  college, make food, buy groceries and those kind of daily choruses. Just because they  are different, doesn’t necessary means that it is a disorder.  

Every one was once in a while felt a little bit of depression because we lost someone, to  much pressure from school, heartbreak etc, if we get medicated for that and diagnosed,  the problem will get even worse. The best solution for this I not medication, but go out  

and be with people and socialize, or psychological therapies. Also not diagnose a  patient with an diagnose right away. There are plenty of alternatives, and medication  should be the last alternative, because that can make people think that they are more  “sick” than what they really are.